In addition to using the Comparable interface, there is another standard interface we can use to compare objects for equality, and inequalities (greater than, or less than): using the Comparator interface.


The Comparator<T> interface defines only one method, compare(T a, T b). The method takes 2 objects, a and b and determines the relationship of the two objects based on the following return values (which are the same as the <a href="" target="_blank">compareTo()</a> method):

  1. Negative integer: if a < b
  2. Positive integer: if a > b
  3. 0: if a = b

Comparator Comparable Comparison

So what is the difference between Comparable interface and Comparator interface? The Comparable defines these relationship inside the class of the objects being compared; therefore, compareTo() method only takes one parameter. In contrast Comparator is implemented in a separate class. From the interface above, we can see the compare() method of Comparator interface takes two parameters.

As we mentioned earlier, there are many ways to define order on objects. Take the Person class that follow for example, we can sort the class based on any of its attributes, such as name or age. When we use Comparable interface, there is only one way to compare objects. With Comparator we can write multiple classes that implement the interface and have different ways to compare Person object based on situation. The follow code shows this.

class Person {
    public String name;
    public String gender;
    public int    age;
    //Other members and methods

/** Comparator to compare by name */
class PersonByName implements Comparator<Person> {
    public int compare(Person a, Person b) { return; }

/** Comparator to compare by age */
class PersonByAge implements Comparator<Person> {
    public int compare(Person a, Person b) {
        if(a.age == b.age) return 0;
        else if(a.age < b.age)  return -1;
        else return 1;

Sorting using Comparator

The flexibility of Comparator allow us to sort objects of a class in different ways (e.g. by name, or by age). Sorting methods in both <a href="" target="_blank">Arrays</a> and <a href="" target="_blank">Collections</a> class take an additional Comparator object. The following code first sorts the array of Person first by name, then by age.

class Demo {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Person[] a = new Person[3]; //Create an array of Person
        a[0] = new Person("John", "M", 40); //Create Person Objects
        a[1] = new Person("Anne", "F", 20);
        a[2] = new Person("Bill", "M", 50);
        Arrays.sort(a, new PersonByName()); //Sort the array by name
        Arrays.sort(a, new PersonByAge()); //Sort the array by age